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SYLLABUS

CENTRAL COUNCIL OF INDIAN MEDICINE

NEW DELHI

 

SYLLABUS FOR POST – GRADUATE COURSE IN AYURVED

 

Preliminary Examination

Research Methodology & Medical Statistics

2-3

Basic Principles of Anaidanikiya Group

3-5

Basic Principles of Naidanikiya Group

6-8

 

Final Year Examination

1.   AYURVED SIDDHANT

9-10

2.   AYURVED SAMHITA
(a) Charak Samhita
(b) Sushrut Samhita
(c) Vagbhat Samhita

11-11

3.   RACHANA SHARIR

12-13

4.   KRIYA SHARIR

14-18

5.   DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN

19-26

6.   RASASHASTRA

27-35

7.   BHAISHAJYA KALPANA

36-43

8.   AGADA TANTRA EVUM VYAVAHARA AYURVED

44-47

9.   SWASTHAVRITTA

48-51

10.  ROGNIDAN & VIKRITI VIGYAN

52-55

11.        MANOVIGYAN EVUM MANASROG

56-62

12.        PRASUTI & STRI ROG

63-67

13.        KAUMARBHRITYA

68-73

14.        KAYACHIKITSA

74-77

15.        SHALYA TANTRA (SAMANYA)

78-82

16.        SHALYA KSHAR EVUM ANUSHASTRA KARMA

83-87

17.        SHALAKYA ( NETRA ROG VIGYAN)

88-91

18.        SHALAKYA (KARNA- NASA-KANTHA-SHIROROG)

92-94

19.        SHALAKYA ( MUKHA & DANTA ROG VIGYAN)

95-97

20.        PANCHKARMA

98-105

21.        SANGYAHARAN

106-107

22.        CHHAYA EVUM VIKIRAN VIGYAN

108-109

 

 

Syllabus for MD (Ayu) Preliminary Examination

PAPER-I

      RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND MEDICAL STATISTICS

 

(A)  METHODS OF RESEARCH

 

    Aims and objects of research in Ayurveda, Ancient modern methods of Research.  Setting up of a basic research laboratory including Animal House.                                                                                              

    Principles and methods of fundamental, clinical, drug and literary research.  Manuscriptology principles and methods of survey of medical plants.

 

    Radio-isotopes and their role in medical research.  Radiation and their biological effects.

 

    Introduction of specific research instruments like chromatography Spectrometer, Calorimeter, Electrophoresis apparatus and other latest research instruments.

 

(B)  MEDICAL STATISTICS

 

1.   Application of statistical methods to Ayurvedic research, collection, compilation and tabulation of medical statistics, methods of presentation of data, calculation of mean, median and mode, measurement of variability, standard deviation, standard error, normal probability curve.

 

2.   Concept of regression and co-relation and their interpretation.

 

3.   Tests of significance, tx2 and F test and their simple application.

 

4.   Principle of medical experimentation on variation in experimental design.

5.   Vital statistics.

Reference Books

1.    Ayurvediya Anusandhan Paddhati                                           P.V.Sharma

2.    Research Methodology                                                     Prof.V.J.Thakar

3.    Drug Survey                                                          Mayaram Uniyal

4.    Methods in Biostatistics for Medical Students                  B.K. Mahajan

5.    Introduction to Biostatistics                                      Huldali Bancroft

6.    Practical Problem in Statistics                                    D .N., Elhance

7.    Health statistics                                                            N.S.N. Rao

8.    A short text book of Medical Statistics                              Sir A.B.Hill

9.    Introduction to Clinical Research                            William C. Scheffer

10. A short text book of Medical Statistics            Sir Austin Brocdtord Hill

                                                                                (Indian edition)

 

PAPER- II

MAULIK SIDDHANT

(Any one of the following groups should be taken as per Naidanikiya or Anaidanikiya group)

Group-A

Anaidanikiya (Non-Clinical)

2. (a)  Basic Principles of Ayurveda.

2. (b)  Basic principles of Sharir

2. (c)  Basic Principles of Dravya guna and Rasa-Shastra.

2. (d)  Basic underline practical principles of Medicine.

 

Group-B

Naidanikiya (Clinical)

2.(a)   Fundamentals of  Nidan and Chikitsa (Etiology and treatment)

2.(b)   Fundamentals of Shalya and Shalakya Tantra

2.(c)   Basic Principles of Prasuti Tantra, Stri-Rog  and Kaumarbhritya

2.(d)   Underline practical principles of Medicine.

 

PAPER-II

GROUP-A

1.  Basic Principles of Ayurveda

Basic Principles of Ayurveda, Principles and technical terms of other darshan along with Sankhya and Vaisheshik darshana.

Specific knowledge of principles of Sankhya & Vaisheshik along with other darshana (Philosophy) incorporated in Ayurvedic literature. Importance of  Ayurvedic Philosophical concept, determination of padartha, determination of tetra, description of vada-marga, proper knowledge of Basic principle of Ayurveda, theory of evolutions, determination of purusha according to dhatu-bheda, description of tantraukti its utility, number and knowledge of technical terms of Ayurveda.

 

Reference Books

1.   Related matters of Charak & Sushrut

2.   Sankhyakarika                                                         Tatvakaumudi

3.   Vaisheshika darshan                                       Prashastapada bhasya

4.   Patanjala yogadarshan                                                 Vyasa bhasya

5.   Vedantasara

6.   Ayurveda darshanam                                     Acharya Rajkumar Jain

 

2.  Basic principles of Sharir (Rachana Sharir and Kriya Sharir)

Study of the main principles of practical rachana sharir & Kriya sharer (anatomy and physiology). Specific study of the following matters in the preview of prakriti & vikriti: 

1)       Study of Sira & Dhamani along with the study of Snayu, Nadi, and Kandara.

2)       Analysis of srotas according to Charak & Sushrut.

3)       Detailed study of marma, with definition, variety, description, site anatomical distribution, specific action & establishment of its importance.

4)       Knowledge of Agni, its importance, specific variety and characteristics.

5)       Narration of Mahasrotas, description of kostha,  anatomical & physiological study of Hridya (Heart),  Kloma, Phuphus (Lungs) Yakrit, Pliha, Unduk, Vrikka (Kidney), Nabhi, Dimba, Basti etc. Functional study of Dhatu, Oja, Gyanedriya, Mana, Buddhi etc. & other related structures.

Reference Books

1.   Related matters of Charak Samhita

2.   Sharir sthan of Sushrut

3.   Related matters of Ashtang Samgraha and Hridaya

4.   Pratyaksha Shariram

5.   Abhinava Shariram

6.   Parishadya Shabdartha Shariram

 

3.  Basic Principles of Dravyaguna Vigyan and Rasa-shastra

Practical & specific knowledge of the principles described in Dravyaguna Shastra. Determinations of specific Ganas & Varga. Determination of practical importance of Rasa, guna, virya, vipaka, & prabhava principles. Knowledge of the technical terms (like dipan, pachan etc) described in Dravyaguna. Knowledge of the newer methods of drug research. Classification of Rasa-dravya & their practical utility. Description of Dhatu, Updhatu, Ratna, Uparatna, Visha, & Upavisha & their main formulations.

Five types of kashaya kalpana, formulation of Asava, Arishta, Bhasma, Loha, Mandur, formulations of  rasa-adusadhi, formulation of ghrita ,tail, Avaleha and paka kalpana and their practical knowledge & utility.  Knowledge of recent methods & instruments of Bhaishaja Kalpana

Reference Books

1- Dravyaguna Vigyan                                       Yadavji Trikamji

2- Dravyaguna Vigyan                                    Priyavrata Sharma

3-Aushadgunadharma Shastra                     Pt. Vishvanath Dvivedi

4- Rasaratnasamucchaya

5 Rasendrasarasamgraha 

6. Kriyatmaka Aushadaha Parichaya Vigyan       Vishvanath Dvivedi

 

4.  Basic Underlines Practical Principles of Medicine

General knowledge of the basic principles of modern medicine, Homeopathy, Unani, Siddha, Chainic, Tibbati and other prevailing systems of medicine in the purview of the basic principles of Ayurvedic Medicine.

Description of general and specific principles of kayacikitsa

Determination of dosha & dushya, Knowledge of avarana (overriding) of doshas, specific knowledge of samsarga and sannipata of Dosha, Description of srotodusti, sequence of treatment of the different variety of diseases and group of diseases. Practical knowledge of the principles of treatment, increase  of Kshina Dosha and depletion of vriddha dosha, shadvidha upakram, dvividha upakrama (Santarpana & Apatarpana) and  Shadvidhakriyakalopakrama etc .

Proper knowledge of methods of Rasayana & Vajikarana and the medicinal formulations to be used in those processes. Practical importance of purvakarma, pashchatkarma & methods of Panchakarma, knowledge of diseases related to difference systems like Pranavaha, Raktavaha etc.

Reference Books

1-   Charaka Samhita with chakrapanidutta

2-   Sushrut Samhita  related to medicine

3- Ashtang Samgraha and Ashtang Hridaya related to medicine

4- Cikitsadarsha                                      - Pandit Rajesvardutta Shastri

5- Kayachikitsa                                                - Ramaraksha Pathaka

6- Rog Pariksha Vidhi                                             - Priyavrat Sharma

7- Panchakarma Vigyan                                 - Haridas Sridhar Kasture

GROUP- B

1. Basic Principles of Rog -Nidan & Vikriti Vigyanam

Detailed study of various methods of the examination of diseases and patients specially Dvividha, Trividha, chaturvidha, Panchavidha, Shadvidha, Astavidha & Dasavidha pariksha and their specific utility in medical science. Knowledge of different new methods and instruments related to examination of patients. Examination of vitiated dosha, dhatu & mala.  Assessment of importance of examination in different diseases, proper knowledge of avarana of dosha, dhatu & mala. Importance of features due to avarana as specific causative factors in the production of the diseases. Proper acquaintance of Ashayapakarsha, Trividha rogmarga, sanchayadi-kriyakala as per etiopathological view.  Specific knowledge of pathogenesis of diseases, importance of pathogenesis in the manifestation of disease. Knowledge of natural immunity. Knowledge of Arishta Vigyan (Bad Prognostic signs).

Reference Books

1-   Sutra-Nidan-Vimana-Indriya Sthan of Charak Samhita 

2-   Related matters of Sushrut Samhita, Ashtang Samgraha and Ashtang Hridaya

3- Madhava Nidan                               — Madhukosha Commentary

4- Ayurvediya Vyadhi Vigyan                 Yadavji Trikam ji Acharya

5- Rog Pariksha Vidhi                           Priyavrat Sharma 

6-Abhinava Vikriti Vigyan                      Raghuvir Prasada Divedi

 

2. Basic Principles of Shalya & Shalakya Tantra

Characteristics of rakta and establishment of its 4th doshatwa in the perview of the knowledge of dosha, dhatu & mala. Proper knowledge of diseases described in Shalyatantra and their etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment. Knowledge of Yantra, Shastra & Anustrastra.  Merits and demerits of shastra.  Practical knowledge of astavidha shastra karma in different diseases. Surgical diseases and their methods. Kinds of Vrana, methods of vrana bandhan, sixty procedures of vranas, importance of application of Kshar, method of prepartion of Kshar. A brief knowledge of required medicines for kshar preparation. Method of application of Kshar in different diseases, knowledge of application of Kshar, knowledge of agnikarma and its applicability, practical knowledge and description of different variety of rakta mokshana like siravedha, Shrings, Jalouka and  Alabu.

Proper knowledge of diseases above the clavicle, their etiology and clinical features. Knowledge of practical application and method of preparation of different procedures applicable in diseases above the clavicle like ashchyotan, vidalaka, putapaka, tarpana, Anjan, Dhumpana, Kavala, Gandusha, Raktamokshan, nasya, Sirovasti etc. Description along with practical application of newer instruments applied in different diseases depicted in Shalakya Tantra.

 

Reference Books

1. Related matters of Sushrut Samhita, Ashtang Samgraha and Ashtang Hridaya

2. Saushruti—Ramanth Dvivedi  

3. Shalya samanvaya

 

3. Basic Principles of Prasuti tantra, Stri Rog and Kaumarbhritya

Description of importance of female anatomy, anatomy of uterus, associated hormones of menstrual cycle, ovum, fertilization & implantation, formation of twin pregnancy, underlying causes of the formation of foetus, Sada-dhatvatmka form of fetus, Maternal factors, and development of foetus, foetal implantation, Endometrial membrane, Nutrition of the foetus, Sex formation in foetus and ante-natal and pre-natal care, formation of Jarayu (amniotic membrane) and Placenta.

Different stages of labour management, haemorrhage and its control, types of foetal expulsion, Therapeutic measures of normal labour, Abnormal labour, knowledge of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, Mudhagarbha (Obstructed labour), complications and treatment of abortion and miscarriage, Post-labour measures, cutting of umbilical cord, abnormalities of lactation.

Yoni-Vyapada, Stanya Rog, general disease in female, Rakta gulma (hydatidiform mole), Breast and Uterine cancer, Uterine prolapse, exogenous vaginal diseases.   Etiology, pathogenesis and symptomatic treatment of diseases occurring in females, knowledge of methods uttrar Basti, pichu, Varti, lepa, dhupan (fumigation), dhavan (douching), agnikarma (Cauterisation) etc. Different types and uses of various surgical methods in different female disorders.

Neonatal examination, Neo-natal care and nutrition of New born (neonate). Balashosa (Marasmus), Pari-Garbhika, phakka (Rickets), jalashirsha (Hydrocephalus) and other diseases like kasa, swasa, Grahani, Diarrhoea, paksaghata (Paralysis), Heart diseases, Kukunaka (Conjunctivitis), obstructed anus, Phimosis and horn, Trachoma, Charmadala, Kshiralaska, Ulvaka Rog,  Vomiting,  Child epilepsy, Worm infestations, Talukantaka, Treatment of diseases due to (grahavadha) external demons according to their etiology and symptoms.

 

Reference Books

  1. Related portion of Charak Samhita
  2. Kashyapa Samhita
  3. Harita Samhita
  4. Abhinav Prasuti Tantra                         — Ayodhya Prasad Achal
  5. Abhinav Stri rog Vigyan                        — Ayodhya Prasad Achal

    6. Kumat Tantra Samccaya                             Ramanath dvivedi

 

4. Underlying Practical Principles of Treatment

General knowledge of the basic principles of modern medicine, Homeopathy, Unani, Siddha, Chainic, Tibbati and other prevailing systems of medicine in the purview of the basic principles of Ayurvedic Medicine.

Description of general and specific principles of kayacikitsa

Determination of dosha & dushya, knowledge of avarana (over riding) of doshas, specific knowledge of samsarga and sannipata of Dosha, Description of srotodusti, sequence of treatment of the different variety of diseases and group of diseases. Practical knowledge of the principles of treatment, increase of Kshina Dosha and depletion of vrddha dosha, shadvidha upakram, dvividha upakrama (Santarpana & Apatarpana) and  Shadvidhakriyakalopakrama etc .

Proper knowledge of methods of Rasayana & Vajikarana and the medicinal formulations to be used in those processes. Practical importance of purvakarma, pashchatkarma & methods of Panchakarma, knowledge of diseases related to difference systems like Pranavaha, Raktavaha etc.

Reference Books

1-   Charak Samhita with cakrapanidutta

2-   Sushrut Samhita  related to medicine

3-   Ashtang Samgraha and Ashtang Hridaya related to medicine  

4-   Cikitsadarsha                                  - Pandit Rajesvardutta Shastri

5-   Kayachikitsa                                   - Ramaraksha Pathak

6-   Rog Pariksha Vidhi                           - Priyavrat Sharma

7-   Panchakarma Vigyan                       - Haridas Sridhar Kasture


MD (Ayu) PART-II EXAMINATION

 

  1. AYURVEDA – SIDDHANT - DARSHANA

PAPER -I

Ayurvediya Siddhant

Introduction and description of main basic principles described in Charak Samhita, Sushrut Samhita, Ashtang Hridya, Ashtang Samgraha etc.; analysis of principles specially loka-purusha samya, panchmahabhuta, tanmatra, tridosha, sapta dhatu, mala, oja, agni, ama, ashtahar-vidhi visehsaytana, upstambha, srotas, bij chatushtaya, dravya-guna-rasa-virya-vipaka; vad-vidhi, gyanopaya, description of karanarupa padartha according to ayurveda.

 

PAPER - II

Darshanika Siddhant

Speciality of philosophy of ayurveda, discussion, and critical study of philosophical principles incorporated in ayurvedic text especially avyaktam (parkriti), shrishtikrama, chaturvidha pariksha, pramanvada (epistemology), shat padartha, karan karya vada, description of karya and karana along with their variety, description of karya, vivartavada, satkaryavad, parinamvada, arambhavada, parmanuvada etc., analytical study of basic principles of samkhya-nyaya-vaisheshika darshana, clinical/practical applications of above mentioned principles in therapeutics and research fields.

 

PAPER - III

Itardarshananam Paryalochanam

Comparative study of the depicted principles of ayurveda for achieving the goal along with the principles of other philosophical schools. Manovimarsha, atma-vicara, moksha, punarjanma, svabhavoparamvada, ashtangyoga, anekantavada, syatvada, chatuviddha siddhant, tantra yukti, tachhilya, kalpana, arthashrya, vyakhya, vakyartha bodhak vrittis, tantraguna, tantradosha, vadamarga, pada – analytical study of above mentioned principles with applying these in therapeutics and research.

 

PAPER - IV

Ayurveda- Darshan Vangamayasya Itihas

 

Introduction and description of tantra kartas (authors), pratisamskartas (redactors), tika-karas (commentators), famous personalities of rasa-shastra, nighantukaras and their works from ancient times till date; introduction and contribution of famous authors of ayurvedic texts in twentieth century; developmental studies of branches of ayurveda. Recognition of education and research in ayurveda by the government, globalisation of science of ayurveda, introduction of department of AYUSH established by central government health ministry and councils under AYUSH- CCIM, CCRAS. Formation, introduction and activities of organisations like Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapitha.

 

Practical

1.   Clinical/practical study of panchmahabhuta, tridosha, dhatu, mala etc referring to karana and karya.

2.   Application of methods of examination of charak in the examination of dravya, guna, rog and rogi.

3.   Examination of minimum 100 patients in hospital is essential with practical study and application of essential secondary principles in those.

Reference Books

 

1.   Charak Samhita With Chakrapani commentary

2.   Sushruta Samhita With Dalhana Commentary

3.   Ashtanga Samgraha

4.   Ashtanga Hridaya

5.   Vaisheshika Darshan                    – Prashastapada bhasya

6.   Nyaya Darshan                           - Vatsyayan Bhasya Patanjala

7.   Yoga Darshan                             - Vyas Bhasya

8.   Vedantsara

9.   Sarvadarshan Samgraha

10. Bhartiya Darshan                         - Baldev Upadhayaya

11. Ayurved Darshanam                    - Acharya Rajkumar Jain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. AYURVED SAMHITA

PAPER -I

Charak Samhita

Charak Samhita complete with Ayurvedadipika commentary by Chakrapani.

PAPER -II

Sushrut samhita

Sushrut samhita complete and Nibandha samgraha commentary by Acharya Dalhana on Sutra- sthana and Sharir- sthana only.

PAPER -III

Ashtang-hridayam

Ashtang-hridayam Sutra- sthanamatram with Sarvanga -sundara commentary by Aruna Datta and Ayurveda- rasayana commentary by Hemadri.

PAPER -IV

Ayurvedavangmayasya Itihas

1)   Complete historical introduction and contribution of propounder, redactors and commentators of Brihattrayi.

2)   Rational explanation of some references from Charak, Sushrut and Ashtang hridaya be related to the present day scenario and should be utilized for practical applicability.

 

Reference Books

1.      Samhitas along with above said commentaries.

 

 

 


3. RACHANA SHARIR

 

PAPER -I

 

Ayurvediya Rachana Sharir

 

a)  Description of Sharir

 

General introduction. Etymological derivation of Sharir.  Explanaton of Sharir. Shadangatva, Knowledge and importance of Sharir and Shaarir, Tridoshamayatvam, Panchabhoutikatvam, Sukshma Sharir.

 

b) Koshthanga Sharir

 

Detail etymological derivation of 'Koshtha' and Koshthangas, detailed study of each Koshthanga Includes systemic Anatomy.

 

c) Snayu and Kandara

 

Detail study of Snayu, Kandara, Rajju and their general description.

 

d) Asthi Sharir

 

General Introduction and description of bones, difference among number of bones according to followers of Veda and Shalya Tantra. Derivation of Asthi. Types of bones, ossification and detailed study of each bone and its applied anatomy.

 

e) Sandhi Sharir

 

Description, features, number, types and applied anatomy of joints.

 

f) Sira, Dhamani and Srotas Sharir

 

Etymology, derivation, definition, synonyms, number and types of Sira, Dhamni and Srotas,  anatomical difference among Sira, Dhamani and Srotas, description of Vedhya and Avedhya Siras (Unpuncturable & Puncturable Veins) and clinical importance of  Sira, Dhamni and Srotas.

 

PAPER -II

 

Marma Sharir Evam Sharir Pramana Vigyan

 

Derivation of the word marma and their features, characteristics and number of marma according to Sushrut.  Division of marma on structural basis (Rachna Bheda), shadangatvama (Regional), abhighataja (Prognostic) Classification. Types of vital organs according to Samhita. Knowledge of specific symptoms due to 'Marma abhighat.  Preventive measures of abnormalities due to Marma Viddha.  Importance of marma in Shalya.  Shroni Marma as per Charak and their proper knowledge. Detailed study of individual marmas.

 

PAPER-III

 

Garbhavakranti Aur Anuvanshiki Sharir Sahit Utak Vigyan

­

Etymology of Garbhavakranti Sharir, features of Shukra and Shonita, description of Bij, Bijbhag, Bijbhagavyav, Shagarbhodpadakbhav. The knowledge of symptoms  occurring in Ritumati, Sadhyah Grihita Garbha' and Asanna Prasavadi stages.

Knowledge of general and special Embryologycal development – individual and Systemic Embryological developmental anatomy. Knowledge of advancement in Anuvanshiki(Genetics) and Garbhaj vikar (Teratology).

 

PAPER - IV

 

Tantra Sharir Evam Antah Sravi Granthi Vigyaniya

 

Description of sensory organs (Eye, Ear, Nose, tounge and Skin) and their applied anatomy.

 

Description of Shamashru, Loma and Nakha.

 

Shat Chakra, location and significance in yoga. Description of Ida, Pingala, Sushumna nadi, vata nadi tantra (Nervous system).  Anatomy of Brain and spinal cord, peripheral Nervous system, and autonomous nervous system. Components of other nervous system.  Detailed study of Endocrinology.

Reference Books

 

1.        Related Matters of Brihatrayee and laghu trayee

2.        Pratyaksha Shariram                               —gananath Sen

3.        Abhinava Shariram                                 Damodar Sharma Gaur

4.        Parishadyam SabdarthaShariram              Damodara Sharma Gaur

5.        Brihat Shariram                                       –Varirar

6.        Shiva Samhita

 

 


4. KRIYA SHARIR

PAPER-I

 

Deha Kriya Vigyan Sahitam Dosha Dhatu Mala Vigyaniyam

 

1.   Dosha dhatu mala mulam hi shariram. Tatra shariram nama chetanadhishtanabhutam. Panchamahabhuta vikara samudayatmakam samayogavahi

 

Physiological study of Human body as a composite of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala

Different levels of organization of human body: Cell Tissue OrganSystem; mechanism of Homeostasis. Cell physiology, Membrane physiologyand Membrane Potentials.

 

2.   Dosha dhatu malanam guna karma sthana prakara dhatutwa panchabhautikatwa nirupanam

 

Properties, functions, locations and types of Dosha, Dhatu and Mala, their Panchabhautika composition and their function as Dhatu in their normal state. Basic classification of tissues- Epithelial tissue, Muscular tissue, Connective tissue and Nervous tissue and their functions.

 

3.   Dosha dhatu malanam vrudhi kshaya karani lingani cha

 

Causes and features of Vriddhi and Kshaya of Dosha, Dhatu and Malas.

 

4.   Dhatu paka, dhatupake tatposhane cha agni (jatharagni, bhutagni, dhatwagni) srotasam karma vivechanam agni vivekaha, aharapaka vivechanam.

 

Study of physiological function of Jatharagni, Bhutagni and Dhatvagni

Basic biochemistry digestion absorption and metabolism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleic acids, minerals and water.

 

5.   Srotovivekaha srotasam swarupam lakshana samkhya prakaradinam samyak gyanam

 

Physiological and clinical significance of Srotamsi, their properties, features, number and types.

 

6.   Mutra purisha  swedadi malanam nirmana karma utsarga vivechanam

 

Mechanisms of formation of urine, feces and sweat, their functions and mechanisms of excretion according to ayurveda and modern science.

 

7.   Ojo nirupanam

 

Conceptual study of ojas. Physiological and clinical importance of Ojas. Description of Immunit and its types - Innate, acquired and artificial. Mechanisms involved in Cellular (T-cell mediated) and humoral (B-cell mediated) immunity, hypersensitivity, allergy and autoimmunity.

 

8.   Siddhantnam kriyashariropayogi vyavaharikam gyanam navyamatena vividha jivabhautika – jivarasayanika

 

Study of recent advances in the understanding of different biophysical and biochemical mechanisms involved in physiology and their correlation with Ayurvedic fundamentals.

Basics of Biophysics and Biochemistry. Effect of Physical Agents on living system: Ultrasound, aviation and space physiology, deep sea physiology, Hypergravics and hypogravics, Hyperbarics. Filteration, diffusion, osmosis, ultrafiltration, surface tension and adsorption, colloid, acid-base and pH buffers réduction oxydation reactions

 

9.   Shatkriyakala varnanam tatha chikitsiya mahatwam cha

 

    Physiological and clinical study of Kriyakala and their significance.

 

10. Introductory Study of Kriya Sharir in relation to environment.

 

 

PAPER -II

 

Prakriti Satva Saradi Vigyaniyam

 

1.   Prakritidyanasaya mahatvam

 

Physiological study of Deha and Manas Prakriti. Classification and features of different types of Prakriti. Concept of somatotypes, psychological traits; classification of personality according to views of different scholars, application of the concept of personality in modern psychology.

 

2.   Sharirika evam manasika doshanam parasparika sambandha

 

Psychosomatic and somato-psychological effects, Ayurvedic and Modern methods of determination of Prakriti of an individual

 

3.   Satva – Sara – Samhanana – Pramana – Satmya – Aharashakti – Vyayamashakti – Vaya

 

Ityesham bhavanam bhedopadeyata purassaram samyak gyanam Conceptual study and physiological, clinical significance of assessment of Satva – Sara – Samhanana – Pramana – Satmya – Aharashakti – Vyayamashakti – Vaya  and description of modern and ayurvedic methods to assess these factors

 

4.   Manasa swarupam sthana vishaya karma tasya gunagyanotpatiinidra swapnotpatti

 

Physiological study of Manas – its properties, locations, objects, functions and mechanism of gyanotpatti, Physiology of sleep and dreams, physiology of cognitive processes.

 

5.   Ayurvedasammata atmanah tasya astitvam lakshanam cha

 

Conceptual study of atma – consciousness – and its features.

 

6.    Pramanavinischayasya navyavidhinam parichayah

 

Modern methods to quantitatively assess various body components; Development of possible objective parameters of assessing body components Introduction to modern anthropometry and its co-relation with Ayurvedic Pramana study

 

PAPER - III

 

Koshthanga Kriya Shariram

 

1.   Koshtanganam  yakrit hridaya phuphusa plihadi avayavanam kriya vivechanam

 

Ayurvedic and Modern Physiological study, embryological development, histology and functional importance of different visceras like liver, heart, lungs, spleen etc.

 

Physiology, histology and functional anatomy of Gastro-intestinal tract, descriptive physiology of digestion and absorption in Gastro-intestinal tract, mechanism of secretion and composition of digestive juices, metabolic, secretory, vascular, and other functions of liver, functions of spleen and pancreas.

 

Physiology, histology and functional anatomy of cardiovascular system. Properties of cardiac muscles, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, venous return, Blood pressure and its control. Hypertension, Heart rate and its regulation. Physiological basis of ECG, Hemodynamics.

 

Physiology, histology and functional anatomy of respiratory system, define ventilation, mechanism of respiration, gaseous exchange, transportation of gases, control of respiration, hypoxia, dyspnoea, artificial respiration, applied physiology of respiration.

 

Physiology of male and female reproductive system.

 

Foetal and neonatal physiology.

 

2.   Prachya – navyamata samanvaya paraspara tantrika gyanendriya vigyanam

 

(Ayurvedic and modern views on physiology of nervous system including physiology of special senses)

Physiology of nervous system. Functioning and regulation of central nervous system. Physiology of autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. Physiology of special senses and general senses. Functions of the cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. Functional significance of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, pyramidal system and extra pyramidal system. Physiology of learning and motivation, long term and short term memory, human behaviour.

 

3.   Nisrota granthimnam nama swarupa, karma, antahsravadinam vishesha gyanam – antahsravigranthinam antahsrava tesham sharirvayaveshu prabhavaha

 

Physiological study of Endocrinology. Enumeration of endocrine glands their nomenclature, properties and secretions. Study of various physiological effects of hormones on different systems.

 

4.   Recent advance in the understanding of neuro – immuno – endocrinology.

5.   Introduction to sports physiology

6.   Introduction to fetal and neonatal physiology

 

PAPER- IV

 

Prayogik  Kriya Sharir

 

  1. Sharirbhavanam upadhatu maladinam prayoga sharir parikshana vigyanam

Modern laboratory and ayurvedic and clinical methods to assess the functional mechanism of dosha, dhatu, mala and other factors.

  1. Mamsa – peshi – nadi – hridayadi anga avayavanam karmanam prayogik parikshan (experiments/ records to demonstrate nerve muscle physiology, arterial pulse, cardiac muscles and others).
  2. Clinical examination of different systems in human body
  3. Physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine, determination of specific gravity and reaction. Detection of glucose, ketone bodies, proteins, bile salts, bile pigments and occult blood in urine.
  4. Study of different types of microscopes and their care and use. Preparation of peripheral blood smear. Identification of RBC, WBC, platelets. Methods of total WBC count, total RBC count, ESR, differential WBC count, absolute eosinophil count, reticulocyte count and platelet count.
  5. Estimation of haemoglobin concentration in the blood, Blood groups, bleeding and clotting time, haematocrit value and red cell indices.
  6. Practical knowledge of care and usage of equipments like stethoscope, sphygmomanometer, haemoglobinometer, haemocytometer, spirometer, kymograph, thermometer etc.
  7. Methods of estimating blood sugar, serum lipids, serum protein, serum creatinine, serum cholesterol and blood urea.
  8. Physico – chemical techniques and principles of associated instruments – centrifuge, chemical, physical, electronic balance, pH meter, spectrophotometer and calorimetesr, radioactive counters and use of radio isotopes. Transducers, oscilloscopes, recording of bio-potentials: EEG, EKG and EMG, magnetocardiography, physiograph USG, MRI etc.

 

Requirements to be fulfilled by MD (Ay) Students during the period of 3 years

 

  1. Engaging at least 25 theory classes for First Prof. BAMS students in the presence of teachers as a part of training in Teaching Methodology.
  2. Presentation of at least 20 seminars in the department with submission of full PAPERs of all presentations and submission of Power Point Presentations of at least 5 seminars.
  3. Appearing in at least 6 assessments at departmental level in theory and practical.
  4. Participation and presentation of PAPERs in at least 2 National / International Seminars.
  5. Publication/ communication of at least 1 research PAPER and 1 Article in journal/magazine.

 

Reference Books

1. Relevent parts of Charak, Sushrut and Vagbhata

2. Ayurvediya Kriyasharir                    - Ranjit rai Desai

3. Dehadhatvagni Vigyan                     - Pt. Haridatt Sastri

4. Kayachikitsa Parichaya                    - C. Dwarkanath 

5. Prakrit Agni Vigyan                         - C. Dwarkanath 

6. Prakrit Dosha Vigyan                       - Acharya Niranjan Dev

7. Sharir Kriya Vigyan                                 -Shiv Charan Dhyani

8. Sharir Kriya Vigyanasya Adhunik Grantha


5. DRAVYAGUNA VIGYAN

PAPER-I

 

Namarupa Vigyan

 

1.   Dravya and its classification, importance of Namagyana of Dravya, origin of Namaraupagyana of Ouadsadhi in the Vedas, study on etymological derivation of various names and synonyms of Oushadhas.

2.   Objective of Dravya-Rupagyana in relation with the Oushadhas. Sthula and Sukshuma description (Macroscopic and Microscopic study) of Oushadas.

3.   Study of synonyms of Oushadha/Ahara dravya mentioned in Vedic literature and in Bhava prakash and Rajnighantu.

4.   Analysis of Synonyms related to external morphology of medicinal plants

5.   Introduction to Pharmacognosy- following methods of classification of crude drugs-Morphological, Microscopical, Chemical, Taxonomical, Alphabetical, Pharmacological, Therapeutical, Chemotaxonomical etc.

6.   Brief knowledge regarding Nomenclature, Identification and Classification of drugs in Ayurveda based on Samhita and Nighantus.

7.   Organized and unorganized drugs and their methods of evaluation.

8.   Study of Distinguishing morphological characteristic features of important medicinal plants including following minimum 100 medicinal plants: -

 

 

1.           Ahiphena

2.       Agnimantha 

3.   Agaru

4.           Amalaki

5.       Apamarga

6.   Aragvadha

7.           Ardraka-shunthi

8.       Arjuna

9.   Arka

10.       Ashvagandha

11.      Ashvagola

12.  Asoka

13.        Ativisha

14.      Bakuchi

15.  Baladvayam

16.        Bharangi

17.      Bhallataka 

18.  Bibhitaka

19.        Bijaka/Vijayasara

20.      Bilva

21.  Brahmi

22.        Bringaraj

23.      Brihati

24.  Chandanadvaya

25.        Citraka

26.      Dadima

27.  Danti

28.        Daruharidra

29.      Dhanyaka

30.  Dhataki

31.        Draksha

32.      Durva

33.  Ela

34.        Eranda

35.      Gambhari

36.  Gokshura

37.        Guduchi

38.      Guggulu

39.  Haridra

40.        Haritaki

41.      Hingu

42.  Jambu

43.        Jatamamsi

44.      Jatiphal

45.  Jirakdvaya

46.        Jyotishmati

47.      Kalamegha

48.  Kampilla

49.        Kanchanara

50.      Kantakari

51.  Kapikacchu

52.        Karkatakshringi

53.      Karpura

54.  Katuki

55.        Khadira

56.      Kiratatikta

57.  Kumari

58.        Kupilu

59.      Kumkum kesara

60.  Kushmanda

61.         Lavang

62.      Kutaja

63.  Lodhra

64.        Madanaphala

65.      Manjishtha

66.  Maricha

67.        Markandika

68.      Musali

69.  Musta

70.        Nagakeshara

71.      Nimba

72.  Nirgundi

73.        Palasha

74.      Palandu

75.  Pashanabheda

76.        Patala

77.      Patola

78.  Pippali-pippalimula

79.        Punarnava

80.      Rasna

81.  Rasona

82.        Saireyaka

83.      Shallaki

84.  Saptaparna

85.        Sarpagandha

86.      Sariva

87.  Shalparni

88.        Shalmali

89.      Shankhapushpi

90.  Shatavari

91.        Shatapushpa

92.      Shigru

93.  Shirish

94.        Shyonaka

95.      Thalisa patra

96.  Tila

97.        Tivrit

98.      Tulasi

99.  Tvak

100.    Ushira

101.   Vacha

102.  Varuna

103.    Vasa

104.   Vata

105.  Vatsanabha

106.    Vidari

107.   Vidanga

108.  Yashtimadhu

109.        Yavani

110.  Deodaru

 

 

 

9.    

Drug research methods- Ayurvedic and conventional, process of Drug development.

10.         

Standardization of Crude Drugs as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) and WHO guidelines.

11.         

Cultivation, Collection, Storage and preparation for the market of ASU Drugs. Introduction to Good Agricultural practices (GAP), Good Field Collection Practices (G.F.c.P.), and Good Storage Practices (G.S.P.) etc.

12.         

Environmental (Desha, kala, Ritu etc), Genetic and Gender factors affecting qualities of crude drugs.

13.         

Introduction of tissue culture techniques used for Ayurvedic Drugs.

14.         

Anukta dravya, (extra Pharmacopeal Drugs).

15.         

Controversial aspects of Ayurvedic Drugs.

16.         

Adulteration and substitutes of Crude drugs, and methods of detection of adulterants.

17.         

Knowledge of TKDL, IPR, Publications and related issues.

18.         

Introduction of Pharmacogenomics.

 

 

Practical                                                                           

 

1.   Field Identification of medicinal plants - At least three local Dravyaguna study tours within the state for field identification and one study tour should be organized out of state.

2.   Preparation of Minimum 50 herbarium sheets of the plants collected during study tour.

3.   Macroscopical, Organoleptic, and Microscopic evaluation of five different parts of plants including their powders.

4.   Extraction and phytochemical evaluation pertaining to TLC separation of various parts of plants (minimum five)

5.   Project- Quality assessment of market sample of crude Drugs. Three crude drugs report should be produced at the time of final practical examination.

 

              PAPER –II

 

Guna Karma Vigyan

 

1.   Fundamental principles of drug action both Ayurvedic and   modern perspective.

2.   Detailed study of rasa, guna, virya, vipaka and prabhava with their applied aspects, based on views of commentators like Chakrapanidatta, Dalhana, Arunadatta, Hemadri and Indu.

3.   Elaborate study of karmas mentioned in Brihatrayi- etimological derivation and definition along with examples

4.   Detailed study of Guna Karmas (Properties and Actions) and Review       of Research studies carried out on important Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants during 20th century including following minimum 110 plants.

 

1.   Ahiphena

2.       Agnimantha 

3.        Agaru

4.           Amalaki

5.       Apamarga

6.        Aragvadha

7.           Ardraka-shunthi

8.       Arjuna

9.        Arka

10.       Ashvagandha

11.      Ashvagola

12.  Asoka

13.        Ativisha

14.      Bakuchi

15.  Baladvayam

16.        Bharangi

17.      Bhallataka 

18.  Bibhitaka

19.        Bijaka/Vijayasara

20.      Bilva

21.  Brahmi

22.        Bringaraj

23.      Brihati

24.  Chandanadvaya

25.        Citraka

26.      Dadima

27.  Danti

28.        Daruharidra

29.      Dhanyaka

30.  Dhataki

31.        Draksha

32.      Durva

33.  Ela

34.        Eranda

35.      Gambhari

36.  Gokshura

37.        Guduchi

38.      Guggulu

39.  Haridra

40.        Haritaki

41.      Hingu

42.  Jambu

43.        Jatamamsi

44.      Jatiphal

45.  Jirakdvaya

46.        Jyotishmati

47.      Kalamegha

48.  Kampilla

49.        Kanchanara

50.      Kantakari

51.  Kapikacchu

52.        Karkatakshringi

53.      Karpura

54.  Katuki

55.        Khadira

56.      Kiratatikta

57.  Kumari

58.        Kupilu

59.      Kumkum kesara

60.  Kushmanda

61.         Lavang

62.      Kutaja

63.  Lodhra

64.        Madanaphala

65.      Manjishtha

66.  Maricha

67.        Markandika

68.      Musali

69.  Musta

70.        Nagakeshara

71.      Nimba

72.  Nirgundi

73.        Palasha

74.      Palandu

75.  Pashanabheda

76.        Patala

77.      Patola

78.  Pippali-           pippalimula

79.        Punarnava

80.      Rasna

81.  Rasona

82.        Saireyaka

83.      Shallaki

84.  Saptaparna

85.        Sarpagandha

86.      Sariva

87.  Shalparni

88.        Shalmali

89.      Shankhapushpi

90.  Shatavari

91.        Shatapushpa

92.      Shigru

93.  Shirish

94.        Shyonaka

95.      Thalisa patra

96.  Tila

97.        Tivrit

98.      Tulasi

99.  Tvak

100.    Ushira

101.   Vacha

102.  Varuna

103.    Vasa

104.   Vata

105.  Vatsanabha

106.    Vidari

107.   Vidanga

108.  Yashtimadhu

109.        Yavani

110.  Deodaru

 

 

 

5.   Detailed study of aharadravyas as per Bhavamishra, and a brief knowledge about contemporary food items.

6.   Introduction to general pharmacology.

7.   Knowledge on procedures, Equipments and instruments used in pharmacological evaluation.

8.   Toxicological and safety Evalution of Ayurvedic Drugs - Acute, subacute and chronic as well as specific toxicity studies.

9.   Introduction to experimental pharmocology with special reference to drug evaluation like analgesic, anti pyretic, anti inflammatory, anti diabetic, anti hypertensive, Anti lipidemic, anti ulcer,Anti microbial, Hepatoproective, Diuretics, Adaptogens, CNS activity etc.

 

Practical                                                                               

1.         Prepartion of minimum one Herbal Monogram- Not less than 50 pages (to be prepared in the first year and to be submitted before examination).

 

2.         Experimental/Clinical observations of Rasapanchaka like: - 

·         Taste threshold experiment (24 drugs-both ahara and oushadha dravyas)-

·         Exothermic and endothermic evaluation of 10 ushna virya and 10 shitaviraya drayvas.

3.         Observation of animal experimentation models (both in vitro and in vivo).

                            PAPER - III

 

Prayoga Vigyan

 

1.   Principles of drug administration and drug delivery regimen Bhaishajya Marga (routes of drug administration), Matra            (Dosage), Anupana (Vehicle), Sevenkala (Time of drug administration), Sevankal avadhi (duration of drug administration), Pathyapathyam (Do’s /Dont’s) Contraindication/Adverse drug reaction etc.

2.   Clinico-pharmacological evaluation/Amayic Prayoga (Therapeutic administration) of drugs which including following minimum 110 plants

 

111.    Ahiphena

112.       Agnimantha 

113.  Agaru

114.    Amalaki

115.       Apamarga

116.  Aragvadha

117.    Ardraka-shunthi

118.       Arjuna

119.  Arka

120.    Ashvagandha

121.   Ashvagola

122.  Asoka

123.    Ativisha

124.   Bakuchi

125.  Baladvayam

126.    Bharangi

127.   Bhallataka 

128.  Bibhitaka

129.    Bijaka/Vijayasara

130.   Bilva

131.  Brahmi

132.    Bringaraj

133.   Brihati

134.  Chandanadvaya

135.    Citraka

136.   Dadima

137.  Danti

138.    Daruharidra

139.   Dhanyaka

140.  Dhataki

141.    Draksha

142.   Durva

143.  Ela

144.    Eranda

145.   Gambhari

146.  Gokshura

147.    Guduchi

148.   Guggulu

149.  Haridra

150.    Haritaki

151.   Hingu

152.  Jambu

153.    Jatamamsi

154.   Jatiphal

155.  Jirakdvaya

156.    Jyotishmati

157.   Kalamegha

158.  Kampilla

159.    Kanchanara

160.   Kantakari

161.  Kapikacchu

162.    Karkatakshringi

163.   Karpura

164.  Katuki

165.    Khadira

166.   Kiratatikta

167.  Kumari

168.    Kupilu

169.   Kumkum kesara

170.  Kushmanda

171.     Lavang

172.   Kutaja

173.  Lodhra

174.    Madanaphala

175.   Manjishtha

176.  Maricha

177.    Markandika

178.   Musali

179.  Musta

180.    Nagakeshara

181.   Nimba

182.  Nirgundi

183.    Palasha

184.   Palandu

185.  Pashanabheda

186.    Patala

187.   Patola

188.  Pippali-           pippalimula

189.    Punarnava

190.   Rasna

191.  Rasona

192.    Saireyaka

193.   Shallaki

194.  Saptaparna

195.    Sarpagandha

196.   Sariva

197.  Shalparni

198.    Shalmali

199.   Shankhapushpi

200.  Shatavari

201.    Shatapushpa

202.   Shigru

203.  Shirish

204.    Shyonaka

205.   Thalisa patra

206.  Tila

207.    Tivrit

208.   Tulasi

209.  Tvak

210.    Ushira

211.   Vacha

212.  Varuna

213.    Vasa

214.   Vata

215.  Vatsanabha

216.    Vidari

217.   Vidanga

218.  Yashtimadhu

219.        Yavani

220.  Deodaru

 

 

3.   Consideration of Samyoga-Virodha (Drug incompatibility).

4.   Principles of clinical pharmacology.

5.   Introduction to reverse pharmacology.

6.    Knowledge about Pharmaco vigilance (ADR) in Ayurveda and conventional system of medicine.

7.   Clinical trial - stages of clinical drug Research as per GCP guidelines, protocol designing, clinical Research & data management.

8.   Bioethics in Clinical Research.

9.   Introduction of Pharmaco epidemiology/observational study 

 

Practical

 

1.   Pharmaco epidemiology/observational study- minimum one drug.

2.   Survey of Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) in prescribed format of national pharmacovigilanc programme of ASU Drugs (minimum 3).

3.   Regular clinical training in the hospital for submission of Ekala Aushadhi Prayoga (Single drugs trial/ clinicopharmocological studies) (Minimum 20).

 

PAPER- IV

 

Nighantu Parichaya-Yogavigyanam

 

1.   History of Dravyaguna.

2.   Uptodate knowledge of literature of Dravyaguna- upto recent editions   of medicinal plant database etc.

3.   Utility of Nighantu. Salient features of the following Nighantus (including following nighantus) with authors, name and period - 

Paryaya ratnamala, Soushruta nighantu, Dhanvantari nighantu, Hridayadipika nighantu, Ashtang nighantu , Bhavaprakasha nighantu, Siddhamantra nighantu, Madhanapala nighantu, Rajavallabha nighantu, Madhava Dravyaguna, Kaiyadeva nighantu, Shodhala nighantu, Chamatkari nighantu, Saligram nighantu, Nighantu adharsha, Nighantu ratnakara,      Priya nighantu and other contemporary works.             

4.   Importance and principles of formulations as per Ayurveda.

5.   Introduction to relevant portions of Drugs and cosmetic act, Magic remedies Act, Intellectual Property Right (IPR) and publication issues, Regulations pertaining Import and Export of Drugs.

6.   Good Manufacturing practices (GMP).

7.   Quality control procedures of formulations prescribed by Drug Regulatory Authorities.

8.   General awareness about Neutraceuticals, Cosmoceuticals, food addictives, Excipients etc.

9.   Detailed study of five formulations/Yogas from each kalpana of crude drugs delineated in Sharangadhara samhita and Ayurvedic formulary of India (AFI).

10. Knowledge about herbal extracts, colours, flavours and preservatives.

11. Standardization of various Ayurvedic kalpana eg- Churna, Vati, Avaleha, Siddha Sneha, Asava Arishta etc.

 

 

 

Practical

 

1.   Shodhana methods of Visha dravyas.

2.   Preparations of two yoga from each kalpana of Ayurvedic formulary of India.

3.   Microscopical evaluation of certain churna formulation e.g. Sitopaladi, Hingvashtak, Trikapu, Triphala etc.

4.   Chemical evaluation of Asavas & Arishtas.

 

Dessertation

 

A Dissertation containing any aspects pertaining to drug identity, purity, quality, safety, and efficacy (experimental/ clinical study) etc. should be prepared under the guidance of approved supervisor in Dravyaguna and submitted 3 months before the final examination.

 

A certificate endorsed by scholer and supervisor should be submitted regarding original study.

 



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